第104期(99年3月)│公務人力發展中心發行 │發行人:劉慈

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考慮到我的讀者可能多數維持用中文思考的習慣,所以我刻意以中文為主,英文放在括弧內,如果把英文的部分取出合併,也是完整優美的英文句子。讀者不妨練習一下每行先讀中文再大聲朗讀英文,或有助於您提升用英文表達中文思考的能力──因為我在英文部分的「停頓」(用分行表示),是考量「意群」(sense group)和「音群」(sound group)的交互影響而決定的,十分符合外國人口語的習慣,音義融合,容易琅琅上口。

進度:創意式的衝突管理與協商-2(Creative Conflict Management and Nogotiation-2)本周內容取材自Interpersonal Communication by Sarah Trenholm & Arthur Jensen, Wadsworth Inc.

採取解決問題方式(Taking a Problem-solving Approach)
處理協商(to Negotiation)

雖然所有討論過的衝突風格(Although all the conflict styles we've discussed)
都有其適用的場合,(are appropriate in some circumstances,)
其中一種特別重要:(one stands out as particularly important:)
解決問題式(the problem-solving)
或稱綜合式。(or integrative approach.)
因為這種風格(Because this style)
需要最多人際技巧(takes the most interpersonal skill)
和敏感度,(and sensitivity,)
有必要進一步分析,(it warrants further analysis)
從以下的角度(1)、(in terms of(1))
其與協商之差異何在,(how it differs from negotiation)
那些特定策略可資運用。(what specific strategies are available.)

差異(The Difference)
於妥協和解決問題之間(Between Compromise and Problem Solving)

會很容易混淆(it's easy to confuse)
妥協和解決問題,(compromise with problem solving,)
但二者並不雷同。(but the two are not identical.)
或許這個例子(Perhaps an example)
有助於澄清其中的差異。(will help illuminate the differences.)
先生和太太(A husband and wife)
對度假地點有歧見。(disagree about where to go for vacation.)
先生想去山區,(He wants to go to the mountains,)
然而太太想去海濱。(while she wants to go to the seashore.)
妥協之道(A compromise solution)
或為把兩週假期切開(might be split their two-week vacation)
成對等部分:(into equal parts:)
一週在山區,(one week in the mountains)
另一週在海邊。(and one week at the shore.)
雖然這樣確實比哪兒都不去好,(While this is certainly better than nothing,)
卻非理想解答。(it is not the ideal solution,)
至少有一半的時間,(at least half of the time,)
有一方必須屈從於另一方。(one party has to give in to the other.)
解決問題之道(A problem-solving solution)
在尋求一種替代選擇,(looks for a novel alternative)
至少能有某些好處(that results in at least some benefits)
讓雙方共享。(to both parties.)
先討論過(after discussing)
他們當初偏好的理由,(the reasons for their initial preferences,)
這對夫妻發現(the couple finds out)
先生想要(that what the husband wants)
在山區度假,(from a mountain vacation)
是為了有機會打獵、釣魚和登山。(is the opportunity to hunt, fish, and hike)
而太太喜歡海濱 (and what the wife likes about the shore)
是為了要游泳、日光浴、(is the swimming, sunning,)
以及社交活動,(and social interaction,)
那麼他們已經準備好(then they are in a position)
尋求解決問題之道。(to look for a problem-solving solution.)
他們或許能找到一個替代選擇,(They may find an alternative)
能滿足他們各自的需求:(that meets both their needs:)
一個境內溫暖地區的度假村,(a resort in a warm part of the country,)
其有沙灘和豐富的活動,(one that has a sandy beach and plenty of activities,)
並位於(but one in an area)
有多處可以打獵和釣魚之地。(where hunting and fishing are plentiful.)

解決式策略(Problem-Solving Strategies)

縱使這個建議:(While the advice)
尋求創意式解答--(to look for a creative solution)
既能增加獲益(that will increase the rewards)
又能減少代價(and decrease the costs)
對雙方都好--(to both parties)
顯然是個好建議,(is obvious good advice,)
其並非總是顯而易見--(it's not always obvious)
在該怎麼做的部分。(how we are to do this.)
協商課程的學生們(Students of negotiation)
確認了幾種方式(have identified several ways)
能達至綜合解答。(to reach integrative solutions.)
我們看看頭兩個例子:(In the first two we will look at,)
一方獲得他方同意--(one actor gets the other to agree)
藉由降低他方代價,(by reducing the other's costs)
或增加其獲益。(or increasing the other's rewards.)
在第2個例子中,(In the second two,)
雙方改變了原來的立場。(both parties change their initial positions.)

第1種策略(The first strategy)
稱作「減少代價」。(is called cost-cutting.)
當一方反對某種解決方式,(when one party objects to a solution,)
是因為該解決方式(it is because that solution)
導致代價。(leads to costs.)
假如能找到辦法(If a way can be found)
盡量削減或消除(to minimize or eliminate)
反對方的代價,(the costs of the objecting party,)
即能達成共識。(then agreement can be reached.)
喬夫也許反對(Geoff may object)
去薩玲娜家過節,(to going to Serena's home for the holidays)
因為開車太遠太累,(because the drive is long and tiring.)
薩玲娜能夠減少他的代價:(Serena can cut his costs)
透過答應開車、(by promising to drive,)
提議他們稍作停留(by suggesting that they stop)
在途中的度假區、(at a nice resort on the way,)
或者透過搭飛機。(or by arranging to fly.)

當然,(Of course,)
並非所有共識的代價(not all the costs of an agreement)
都那樣具體--(are that concrete—)
有時候他們只是心理上的。(sometimes they are psychological.)
人們一旦採取立場,(Once people have taken a position,)
就會拒絕讓步--(they often refuse to “give in”)
基於面子問題,(as a matter of pride.)
減少代價的另一種方式(One way of cost-cutting)
是幫助別人保留面子。(is to help the other person save face.)
我們已經討論過其重要性--(We've already discussed the importance)
維護一個人的面子和底線,(of maintaining one's own face and line.)
練達的溝通者(The competent communicator)
也樂意協助別人(is also willing to help others)
維護他們的面子和底線。(maintain theirs.)
假設,(Suppose that,)
沒有多想的情況下,(without thinking,)
佛斯特博士指定了一場考試--(Dr. Foster assigns a test)
在大型校友舞會的次日,(the day after the big homecoming dance.)
他的學生則想要(His students would like)
他改個日期。(him to change the date.)
在學生們看來,(So far as they can see,)
其中沒有代價的問題--(there are no costs involved)
他簡單改一下就可以了。(in his making such a simple change.)
然而佛斯特(Foster, however,)
對這件事的看法卻不一樣:(sees the matter differently.)
他同意(He agrees)
是有可能(that it would be possible)
調整課程表--(to rearrange his lesson plan)
不是太麻煩。(without too much trouble.)
卻有兩件事(Two things, however,)
會受到影響:(are at stake:)
他的原則和他的地位。(his principles and his status.)
佛斯特反對改變進度--(Foster objects to changing his course)
僅僅是為了包容(simply to accommodate)
學生的社交需求,(the social needs of his students.)
他感覺(He feels)
這樣的改變表明(that such a change would signal)
舞會更重要--(that dances are more important)
比起上課。(than the classes,)
更要緊的是,(and more significantly,)
他感覺(he feels)
如果他「讓步」了,(that if he “give in,”)
他會顏面無光。(he will lose face.)
學生協商代表(The student negotiators)
必需認知這些關注,(must acknowledge these concerns.)
他們應該小心翼翼,(They should be careful)
顯示尊重老師,(to show him respect)
也讓他明白(and to let him know)
他們了解(that they understand)
上課的重要。(the importance of class work.)
他們應該把討論定位(They should frame their discussion)
在解決問題,(as problem solving)
而非衝突,(rather than confrontation,)
他們應該小心翼翼,(and they should be careful)
不去挑戰老師的權威,(not to challenge his authority.)
藉由強調老師的聲望:(By stressing his reputation)
靈活、公正而嚴格,(for being flexible as well as fair and firm,)
藉由盡量減少(by trying to minimize)
要求改變的幅度,(the size of the change they are asking,)
藉由主動要求提前考試(and by offering to take the test earlier)
而非延後,(rather than later,)
他們也許比較有機會(they may have a better chance)
說服他,(to convince him.)
你會如何減少教授的代價--(How would you cut the professor's costs)
如果你是參與的學生?(if you were the students involved?)
你會同意什麼--(What would you agree to)
如果你是教授?(if you were the professor?)

第2種方式(A second way)
可以達致互惠共識的(of reaching a mutually beneficial agreement)
是「補償」,(is compensation,)
或找出辦法(or finding a way)
以「回報」(to “pay back”)
吃虧的一方。(the party who is accommodating.)
一個有趣的補償範例(An interesting example of compensation)
發生在1961年的古巴危機。(occurred during the 1961 Cuban Missile Crisis.)
你可能還記得,(As you may recall,)
俄國人開始(the Russians began)
在古巴部署了核子彈頭。(placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.)
作為同意撤除的回報,(In return for agreeing to remove them,)
俄國人(the Russians)
秘密說服美國(secretly convinced the United States)
從土耳其撤回飛彈。(to withdraw their missiles from Turkey.)
補償讓俄國人(Compensation allowed the Russians)
覺得他們的決定(to feel that their decision)
並未顯示(did not represent)
單方面的吃虧,(unilateral accommodation)
而是(but instead)
導致互惠。(involved mutual benefits.)
美國的撤回(the U.S. withdrawal)
慢了4個月--(was delayed for four months,)
以有利美國領導人(to help U.S. leaders)
免受國內批評,(avoid domestic criticism)
而保留了面子。(and save face.)

在日常生活上,(On a more mundane level,)
假如你媽媽同意(if your mother agrees)
把她的車子借你,(to lend you her car,)
你可以補償:(you could compensate)
透過主動去取洗好的衣服--(by offering to pick up the cleaning)
在回家路上,或是(on your way home or,)
至少,(at the very least,)
透過還車時灌滿油箱。(by returning it with a full tank of gas.)
我們大都期望某些補償--(We generally expect some compensation)
當我們施恩惠給他人時。(when we do favors for others.)
對這個原則沒有感受(Insensitivity to this simple principle)
會破壞關係,(can wreck relationship,)
會讓一方覺得他(making one party feel that he or she)
被利用了,(is being taken advantage of)
或予取予求。(or taken for granted.)
通常一聲簡單的「謝謝你」(Often, a simple “thank you”)
就是對方想要的(is all that another party wants)
補償方式,(by way of compensation,)
簡單的語言應對多麼重要--(how important simple verbal responses are)
在維護關係上。(in maintaining relationships.)

第三種創意式協商的方法(A third method of creative negotiation)
稱作「互相捧場」。(is called logrolling.)
這時雙方都讓步(Here both sides make concessions)
在對方認為重要的事項上--(on issues that are important to the other)
但己方不認為重要的,(but relatively unimportant to them.)
也就是說,(That is,)
一方讓步(the first party concedes)
在甲項和乙項,(on positions A and B)
那另一方(while the second)
就讓步在丙項和丁項。(concedes on C and D.)
假設這個例子:(Assume, for example,)
工會要求(that members of a union are asking)
增加20%(for a 20 percent increase)
的加班費(in the overtime pay rate)
(對他們而言是重要立場),【(a position that is very important to them)】
也要求多20分鐘停工休息(as well as 20 minutes more of rest breaks)
(是次要立場),【(a position of secondary importance).】
也假設資方(Assume also that management)
強烈反對停工休息,(strongly opposes the rest breaks)
但並不太在意(but is not as concerned)
加班事項。(with the overtime issue.)
在這種狀況下,(In this case)
工會或許樂意(the union might be willing)
放棄休息的要求--(to drop its request for breaks)
如果資方不堅持(if management gives up)
它在加班上的立場。(its position on overtime.)
如迪恩•普魯特所言:(As Dean Pruitt tells us,)
「這樣做顯然更好,(“This will typically be better)
對雙方都是--(for both parties)
比起在兩個事項上都折衷」(than a compromise on the two issues”)
(譬如:增10%的加班費【(e.g., a 10% increase in overtime rate】
和多10分鐘休息時間)。【and 10 more minutes of rest time.).】

看看另一個「互相捧場」的例子。(Let's look at another example of logrolling.)
吉娜和愛倫(Geena and Ellen)
在找公寓,(are looking for an apartment.)
吉娜主要在意的(Geena's primary concern)
是地點離工作近,(is that the place be close to work;)
她喜歡(she would like)
住在現代化的高樓大廈。(to live in a modern high-rise.)
愛倫則不然,(Ellen, on the other hand,)
她無法忍受現代化的公寓,(can't stand modern apartments;)
她想要一個舊式房子,(she wants an older place)
有壁爐和大廚房;(with a fireplace and a large kitchen,)
地點則是次要考量--(Location is of less concern)
即使她比較喜歡(although she would prefer)
郊區的房子。(a house in the country.)
也許雙方(Perhaps both)
都可以滿足主要需求--(can get their major needs met)
假如他們找到(if they look)
一棟在市區的改造複式公寓。(for a converted duplex in town.)
雖然吉娜未能(Although Geena doesn't get)
住在高樓大廈,(to live in a high-rise)
愛倫也無法(and Ellen doesn't get)
住在郊區,(to live in the country,)
雙方都可以相對地滿意。(both may be relatively satisfied.)

我們要看的最後一個策略是(The final strategy we'll look at)
「搭橋」。(is bridging.)
搭橋牽涉到(Bridging involves)
找到新的選項(finding a new option)
讓雙方滿意(that satisfies both parties,)
而都不需讓步。(without either having to concede.)
看看這個典型的範例:(Let's look at a classic example.)
兩個人在圖書館做事情,(Two people are working in the library.)
一個人覺得圖書館空氣很悶,(One feels the library is stuffy)
要把窗戶打開,(and so decides to open the window.)
另一人覺得透風很不舒服,(The other is made uncomfortable by the draft)
而堅持關上窗戶。(and insists the window be closed.)
沒有折衷作法(No compromise)
(譬如:窗子開一半)【(for example, opening the window halfway)】
似乎可行。(seems possible.)
圖書館員出面(The librarian who comes)
了解紛爭,(to investigate the disturbance)
想了一下,(thinks for a minute)
打開另一個房間的窗戶:(and then opens a window in the next room,)
既帶進新鮮的空氣又不透風。(bringing in fresh air without the draft.)
另一個這類搭橋的例子(Another example of this kind of bridging)
可以用個老故事說明--(was illustrated in an old episode)
「布拉迪一夥」(of “The Brady Bunch.”)
布拉迪一家已經累積了(The Bradys had accumulated)
許多綠色票券,(a large number of green stamps,)
可以用來兌換(coupons that could be traded in)
昂貴的商品,(for valuable merchandise.)
衝突出現了:(Conflict arose)
因為男孩子想要划艇,(because the boys wanted a rowboat)
而女孩子想要縫紉機。(while the girls wanted a sewing machine.)
如果你看過這個故事,(If you've seen the episode)
(我們很多學生都看過)【(many of our students have),】
就會知道(you'll know)
他們如何對歧見搭橋:(how they bridged their disagreement:)
他們買了個電視機,(They bought a television,)
這個替代選擇更勝(an alternative that was better)
於原來的選項。(than either of the original options.)

另一種搭橋的方式(Another way of bridging)
叫作「把餅做大」。(is called expanding the pie.)
假如衝突發生(If a conflict arises)
在資源分享,(over sharing resources,)
解決問題的方式之一(one way to solve the problem)
是增加資源。(is to increase the resource.)
假設有對夫婦爭執(Assume a couple is quarreling)
於由誰獨占(over who will get sole possession)
第2間臥室。(of a second bedroom.)
一方是作曲家,(One party, a composer,)
想把它當作音樂室,(wants it as a music room.)
另一方是建築師,(The other, an architect,)
想把它當作設計坊,(wants it as a design area.)
共用房間(Sharing the room,)
雖為折衷之道,(a compromise solution,)
卻不可行--(won't do,)
由於空間不夠(as there isn't enough space)
讓兩人同時施展,(for both to spread out)
而且一方的活動(and the activities of one)
會騷擾到另一方。(would disturb the other.)
解決方式之一是增建(One solution is to build on)
更多房間,(an addition to the house,)
從而擴大可資利用的空間,(thereby expanding the available space)
讓兩人皆能各取所需。(so both can have what they want.)


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